Document Type



Pre-print: the initial article submitted to the journal for consideration (prior to peer review)

Publication Date



Applied Mathematics | Computer Sciences | Databases and Information Systems | Information Security | Politics and Social Change

Description, Abstract, or Artist's Statement

This paper provides the first comprehensive survey of methods for inserting arbitrary data into Bitcoin's blockchain. Historical methods of data insertion are described, along with lesser-known techniques that are optimized for efficiency. Insertion methods are compared on the basis of efficiency, cost, convenience of data reconstruction, permanence, and potentially negative impact on the Bitcoin ecosystem.


This is a preprint version of a paper that is undergoing the peer-review process. All information and methods included herein are based on a protocol that is subject to frequent changes.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.